United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 17/CMP 7)
28 November - 9 December 2011, Durban, South Africa
United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 16/CMP 6)
29 November-10 December 2010, Cancun, Mexico
2009 was a crucial year in the international effort to address climate change.
A series of UNFCCC meetings took place thoughout the year, designed to culminate in an ambitious and effective international response to climate change, to be agreed at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 15) in Copenhagen, 7-18 December
Ziel der 15. Vertragsstaatenkonferenz der Klimarahmenkonvention (COP 15) +
5. Vertragsstaatenkonferenz des Kyoto-Protokolls (MOP 5)
Kopenhagen vom 7.-18.Dezember 2009
- Abschluß der Verhandlungen über ein umfassendes Klimaschutzabkommen für die Zeit nach 2012. Einigung dazu wurde seitens der Staatengemeinschaft auf der Klimakonferenz in Bali 2007 ( 13. COP) mit dem Beschluss der "Bali Roadmap" erzielt.
- 2013 In Kraft treten des Abkommens geplant (= Ende 1.Verpflichtungsperiode d. Kyoto-Protokolls).
- Der Weg nach Kopenhagen
- The first round of negotiations this year took place in Bonn, 29 March-8 April.
- The second meeting took place in Bonn, 1-12 June.
- Informal consultations were held in Bonn, 10-14 August.
- Two further sessions will be held prior to Copenhagen:
- 28 September-9 October in Bangkok and
- 2-6 November in Barcelona. The Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) will operate in full negotiating mode in 2009 to advance work towards meeting their respective mandates. Important ongoing work under the Convention will also be taken forward in 2009 by SBISBSTA. COP 15 - Quick Information for Parties, observers and press and
Proposals by Parties for a protocol to the Convention and amendment to the Kyoto Protocol
Five Parties have recently made proposals for a protocol under the Convention pursuant to Article 17 of the Convention. The respective proposals by Parties are available here.
The secretariat has also received twelve proposals by Parties for amendment to the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to Articles 20 and 21 of the Protocol. The respective proposals by Parties are available here.
COP 15: Marking a watershed moment in history, the 15th Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, popularly known as COP15, will convene on 7 December 2009, in Copenhagen, to respond to one of the greatest challenges facing humanity: climate change. COP 15 offers an unprecedented opportunity to tackle the climate crisis while also catalyzing the lower-carbon, green growth that is the foundation of long-term economic prosperity. Reaching a deal by the time the COP15 meeting ends on December 18 will depend not only on the political negotiations but also on the public pressure from around the globe. Public support must be galvanized. To do this, the United Nations has launched “Seal the Deal”. The conference traces its origins to the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janiero, Brazil, which aimed at coordinating international action against climate change. Six years later the Kyoto Protocol was signed in Japan and two years ago signatories gathered in Bali, Indonesia, to launch negotiations for stronger action against climate change. This process will now culminate at the meeting in Copenhagen. More on COP 15 event More on the Negotiations
NEW YORK Summit on Climate Change, 19 - 26 September, 2009: "The objective of the Summit on Climate Change, which I am convening on 22 September, is to mobilize the political will and vision needed to reach an ambitious agreed outcome based on science at the UN climate talks in Copenhagen." UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
Nearly 100 world leaders accepted UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s invitation to participate in an historic Summit on Climate Change in New York on 22 September to mobilize political will and strengthen momentum for a fair, effective, and ambitious climate deal in Copenhagen this December.
“Failure to reach broad agreement in Copenhagen would be morally inexcusable, economically short-sighted and politically unwise,” the Secretary-General said in his opening address. “Now is the moment to act in common cause.”
"There is little time left. The opportunity and responsibility to avoid catastrophic climate change is in your hands," Mr. Ban said, closing the day-long Summit on Climate Change.
The Summit marked the first UN visit for the Presidents of China and the United States as well as the newly elected Prime Minister of Japan. For the complete list of speakers, please see Programme.Read the Secretary-General´s summary of the day!
- Programme and Live Statements
- Video Statements
- Leadership Forum
- Live Coverage
- Media Accreditation
- Climate Week
- UN Gateway on Climate Change
September 2009: About Seal the Deal! The UN-led Seal the Deal Campaign aims to galvanize political will and public support for reaching a comprehensive global climate agreement in Copenhagen in December. Climate change affects us all. Nine out of every ten disasters recorded are now climate related. Rising temperatures and more frequent floods, droughts and storms affect millions of people’s lives. This is set against a backdrop of financial and food insecurity. On December 7, governments will gather in Copenhagen, Denmark to respond to one of the greatest challenges facing humanity. The main question will be how protect the planet and create a green economy that will lead to long-term prosperity. Reaching a deal by the time the meeting ends on December 18 will depend not only on complex political negotiations, but also on public pressure from around the globe. The United Nations has launched “Seal the Deal” campaign that encourages users to sign an online, global petition which will be presented by civil society to governments of the world. The petition will serve as a reminder that our leaders must negotiate a fair, balanced and effective agreement in Copenhagen, and that they must seal a deal to power green growth, protect our planet and build a more sustainable, prosperous global economy that will benefit all nations and people THERE IS NO TIME TO WASTE: STAMP YOUR VOTE AND SEAL THE DEAL!
Business for Climate Change: The UN Global Compact is a strategic policy initiative for businesses that are committed to aligning their operations and strategies with ten universally accepted principles in the areas of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption. By doing so, business, as a primary agent driving globalization, can help ensure that markets, commerce, technology and finance advance in ways that benefit economies and societies everywhere. See what Global Business leaders are saying about Seal the Deal “Caring for Climate" is a voluntary and complementary action platform for UN Global Compact participants who seek to demonstrate leadership on the issue of climate change. It provides a framework for business leaders to advance practical solutions and help shape public policy and attitudes. Chief Executive Officers who endorse the initiative are prepared to set goals, develop and expand both strategies and practices, and to publicly disclose emissions through the UN Global Compact’s reporting mechanism.
Bonn Climate Change Talks - 10-14 August 2009: The Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA held intersessional informal consultations from 10 to 14 August 2009. The meetings took place at the Hotel Maritim in Bonn, Germany. The AWG-LCA had before it a revised negotiating text, resulting from its sixth session in Bonn in June, which is contained in document FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.1The AWG-KP had before it documentation to facilitate negotiations among Parties, building upon the work of the AWG-KP at its eighth session.
Bonn Climate Change Talks - 1-12 June 2009: At a press conference on the last day of the two-week June meeting, UNFCCC Executive Secretary Yvo de Boer spoke of a “significant session that has advanced our work in an important way.” The big achievement of the meeting, he said, is that "it has made clear what governments want to see in a Copenhagen agreement, which shows their commitment to reaching an agreement." With regard to mid-term emission cuts by industrialized countries, he emphasized the need for these countries to show greater ambition. Important progress has been made on technology transfer. Parties welcomed three reports by the Expert Group on Technology Transfer that provide interesting ideas on what can be written into a Copenhagen deal on technology cooperation. Major advances on methodologies have also made it possible to measure and monitor emissions from deforestation, thus laying the groundwork for the inclusion of REDD into a Copenhagen agreed outcome. Mr. de Boer also referred to encouraging new signals coming from governments and from the high-level processes that are committed to supporting a successful outcome in Copenhagen...." Download as Podcast
"The Chair of the AWG-KP has prepared two key documents to be discussed at the Bonn Talks in June that will provide a basis for the group to intensify negotiations on further emission reduction commitments for Annex I Parties. One key document focuses on amendments to the Kyoto Protocol relating to emission reduction commitments of industrialized countries for the second phase of the Protocol (post-2012). A second document covers other related issues, including emissions trading and the project-based mechanisms, and land use, land-use change and forestry. Document on amendments to the Kyoto Protocol
Document on other related issues
- COP 14: The United Nations Climate Change Conference in Poznań, 1-12 December 2008
Accra Climate Change Talks 21-27 August 2008: The Accra (Ghana) Climate Change Talks took forward work on a strengthened and effective international climate change deal under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, as well as work on emission reduction rules and tools under the Kyoto Protocol. This is part of a negotiating process that will be concluded in Copenhagen at the end of 2009. Over 1600 participants attended the Accra meeting, which was the third major UNFCCC gathering this year.
Bonn Climate Change Talks 2-13 June 2008 The twenty-eighth sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change took place from 4-13 June 2008. The second session of the Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA 2) and the second part of the fifth session of the Ad hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP 5 ) took place from 2-12 June 2008.
Outcome of the Bonn Climate Change Talks, 2-13 June
The Bonn Talks included the second major session this year on a strengthened international climate change agreement to be finalized in December 2009 in Copenhagen. As agreed at the previous session of Climate Change Talks in Bangkok, all five elements of the negotiations - adaptation, mitigation, technology, finance and a shared vision for long-term cooperative action - were discussed under the Convention at the Bonn session. more
Vom 3. - 14. Dezember 2007 fanden auf Bali die 13. Vertragsstaatenkonferenz der Klimarahmenkonvention und die 3. Vertragsstaatenkonferenz des Kyoto-Protokolls statt. Die EU strebt an, einen umfassenden Verhandlungsprozess, die "Bali Roadmap" zu vereinbaren. In ihr sollen die wesentlichen Verhandlungsinhalte beschrieben und ein Verhandlungszeitplan festgelegt werden. Bis 2009 sollen die Verhandlungen für ein neues und umfassendes, auf dem Kyoto-Protokoll aufbauendes Klimaschutzregime abgeschlossen sein, damit nach dem Ende der ersten Verpflichtungsperiode des Kyoto-Protokolls 2012 keine Lücke entsteht.Beschluss -/CP.13 - Aktionsplan von Bali Die Klimakonferenz auf Bali hat zentrale Weichen für die Verhandlungen eines Klimaregimes für die Zeit nach 2012 gestellt. Nach intensiven Verhandlungen und mit 24 stündiger Verspätung konnten sich die Vertragsparteien auf den Bali Aktionsplan verständigen. Er unterstreicht den Willen aller Vertragsparteien, angemessen zu einem künftigen Klimaregime beizutragen und legt fest, dass alle Staaten über ihre mess- und überprüfbaren Aktivitäten berichten müssen. Gemeinsam mit einer Reihe von anderen Entscheidungen bildet er die Bali Roadmap, das Verhandlungsmandat. 2009 auf der Klimakonferenz in Kopenhagen sollen die Verhandlungen abgeschlossen werden. Download hier: pdf 109 KByte
Ergebnisse des Klimagipfels auf Bali - Rede des deutschen Bundesminister für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit Sigmar Gabriel - Bundestag, Berlin, 17.01.2008 "... Die Ergebnisse der Klimakonferenz auf Bali bilden eine gute Basis für den Verhandlungsmarathon der nächsten zwei Jahre. Die Ergebnisse sind wichtige Leitplanken, um 2009 auf der Klimakonferenz in Kopenhagen ein zukunftsweisendes weltweites Klimaabkommen zu erreichen. Die Eckpunkte sind:
Die Industrieländer müssen vorangehen und bereits bis 2020 die Emissionen der Treibhausgase drastisch reduzieren.
Aber auch die Entwicklungsländer, insbesondere Schwellenländer wie China und Indien, sollen auf einen klimafreundlichen Entwicklungspfad einschwenken.
Für den dazu notwendigen Technologietransfer an Entwicklungsländer wurde erstmals ein konkretes und umfassendes Arbeitsprogramm verabschiedet.
Entwicklungsländer wie Brasilien, welche die Entwaldung bekämpfen, werden finanziell unterstützt.
Der in Bali beschlossene Anpassungsfonds soll den Entwicklungsländern helfen, mit den Folgen des Klimawandels besser fertig zu werden...."
Bali - Next Steps for Action on Climate Change Representatives from over 180 countries met in Bali, Indonesia, from 3 to 14 December 2007 to get negotiations going on a new international climate change agreement.
The United Nations Department of Public Information provided full coverage of the Conference, including webcasts of main events and press conferences in Bali, radio coverage, photos and News Centre stories. In addition, for the first time, the UN introduced an experiment in on-line reporting from Bali for the entire duration of the Climate Change Conference. These dispatches can be found under Bali Reports.
New Climate Change Roadmap Launched in Bali
Countries agreed to launch negotiations on a new global deal to address climate change after two weeks of intensive negotiations at the Bali Climate Change Conference.The parties to the Climate Change Convention arrived at the consensus decision after around-the-clock negotiations that concluded a day after the conference was supposed to end. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called the Bali Agenda “a pivotal first step toward an agreement that can address the threat of climate change, the defining challenge of our time.” He applauded “the spirit of cooperation shown by all parties to achieve an outcome that stands to benefit all humanity.” The Bali “roadmap financing.” calls for two years of negotiations that will end in 2009 on four key areas,mitigation, adaptation, technology and It is hoped that the new agreement will be ratified by countries in time to take effect when the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012. UN Climate Convention Executive Secretary Yvo de Boer, said the Conference delivered what was promised--to launch negotiations, to set an agenda for the negotiations, and to set a deadline for the negotiations. “Bali delivered what it needed to deliver.” He called the resulting decisions “ambitious, transparent and flexible.” He said the decision of the parties referred to the science of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that it helped bring in important partners from business, finance and the United Nations system. He added that the Bali decision breaks down the strict separation of actions between developed and developing countries. “This is an incredibly exciting agenda.” It was not an easy negotiation and on the last day it even took the special intervention of Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yodhoyono and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to exhort delegates to complete what seemed like hopelessly deadlocked talks. In addition to launching negotiations toward a future agreement, countries also agreed in Bali on a number of important measures that can begin immediately. This includes an agreement that will allow the Adaptation Fund to fund projects in developing countries that will help people cope with the impacts of climate change over the next four years. The Fund, currently worth over $30 million and which can grow by as much as $300 million by 2012, will get its resources from a two per cent levy on all transactions of the Clean Development Mechanism.
The Bali Conference also agreed on a new programme to scale up investment for the transfer of clean technologies to developing countries. It was widely agreed in Bali that for poorer countries to avoid the same development mistakes of industrialized countries, they would need newer and cleaner technologies. Deforestation, which causes 20 per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions, also figured on the agenda in a major way for the first time in climate change discussions. Countries agreed on a range of measures to study and assess the issue—including finding out just how to calculate emissions from deforestation, as well as encouraging demonstration projects that can address the needs of local and indigenous communities. Representatives of non-governmental organizations were featured prominently in Bali, often pressuring negotiators to take a more proactive stand on climate change, and also in providing information on various issues, such as deforestation and the need to save peatlands.
- Anup Shah, COP13—Bali Climate Conference, GlobalIssues.org, Tuesday, January 01, 2008
The UN conference on climate change held in Bali, Indonesia in December 2007 led to a final agreement known as the “Bali Roadmap”. The conference, more officially known as COP-13, or Conference of the Parties, Thirteenth session, 3-14 December 2007, Bali, Indonesia. The meeting drew more than 10,000 participants, including representatives of over 180 countries and observers from intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, and the media.
The Bali Roadmap outlined a new negotiating process to be concluded by 2009 to feed into a post-Kyoto (i.e. a post-2012) international agreement on climate change. The Roadmap included a decision to launch an Adaptation Fund as well as further decisions on technology transfer and on reducing emissions from deforestation.
But the conference was also accompanied by controversy, including
The US position being at odds with most of the rest of the world
Talk of developing countries’ responsibilities (such as China and India) while rich countries (the source of the problem) have made little progress, themselves.
As Inter Press Service (IPS) summarized:
The deep frustration shared by the members of G-77, a 130-member bloc of developing countries spanning Africa, Asia and Latin America, to U.S. objections to language in the final text of the roadmap was best echoed by the delegate from Papua New Guinea. “If you cannot lead, leave it to the rest of us. Please get out of the way,” a visibly angry Kevin Conrad told U.S. officials to cheers from other delegates.…It was a dispute over one paragraph in the section on the future role of developing countries to help reduce the emission of greenhouse gases (GhGs).… “The G-77 had accepted a draft last night, but this morning we noticed there was a change,” Kirit Parikh, member of the Indian planning commission and a delegate on New Delhi’s team to the Bali meeting, told IPS. “We are not sure who was behind it. This was unacceptable to us.” The U.S. government found itself isolated during the final session, as [head of the U.S. government delegation, Paula] Dobriansky insisted on the mechanics of mitigation in the developing world being placed as a priority “because developing countries have made statements (about GhG mitigation) but (there are) no commitments. That is what we want.” The other powerful player at this meeting, the European Union, threw its weight behind the G-77.
— Marwaan Macan-Markar, US Herded Into Consensus in Bali, Inter Press Service, December 15, 2007
Campaign groups such as Friends of the Earth, many of whom were at the talks themselves, were disappointed
with the outcome, saying targets were watered down to mere footnotes in the final text.
The mainstream British media, as well as other European outlets had been quite critical of the US stance and tactics.
As IPS also noted,
Pakistani ambassador Munir Akram, chairman of the G-77, told journalists: “We, the developing countries, have had an uphill battle at this conference to protect our legitimate interests. We had to fight every inch of the way to secure our objectives.”
He even hinted that threats, “including trade sanctions,” had been made. While Akram did not elaborate, European diplomatic sources involved in the negotiations revealed that U.S. delegates had, at one point, introduced issues such as “good governance” in the developing world as a condition for Washington to be part of the Bali Roadmap.
— Marwaan Macan-Markar, US Herded Into Consensus in Bali, Inter Press Service, December 15, 2007
What were the kind of objectives the developing world was trying to ensure? That they were not scapegoats for climate change. For many, many years now, it has been recognized that the rich nations have been mostly at fault for climate change, because their greenhouse emissions have lingered in the atmosphere for decades.
Some have called this a natural debt owed to the developing world
(just as the developing world have a financial debt to the rich).
For some rich countries to want to avoid action until countries like India and China are subject to similar targets has been seen by much of the world as actually being unfair, especially as the rich nations have not reduced their emissions much.
For example, the Delhi-based Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) is quoted here at length:
Responsibility needs rights.
The tragedy of the atmospheric common has been the lack of rights to this global ecological space. As a result, countries have borrowed or drawn heavily and without control. They have emitted greenhouse gases far in excess of what the Earth can withstand. This was because they could emit without limits or quotas and were “free riding” on this natural capital. Some researchers have called this the “natural debt” of the North, as against the financial debt of the South.
This is the science and the politics of CO2. One tonne of CO2 emitted in 1850 is the same as a tonne emitted today. The greenhouse gases … have long lifetime in the atmosphere; these gases are still warming the atmosphere, at any given year. The ‘sinks’—forests, oceans and soils—are the only cleaners of this dirt. The net emissions add up to the space that a nation has appropriated in the global atmospheric common and therefore its responsibility for the climate change.
Calculated in terms of the total emissions of each country, since the early 1900s, we find that every living American carries a natural debt burden of more than 1,050 tonnes of C02 (see graph: Cumulative CO2 emissions). In comparison, every living Chinese has a natural debt of 68 tonnes and every living Indian, a mere 25 tonnes. Therefore, even with all the talks of India and China catching up with rich world in terms of total emissions, the fact is in terms of natural debt it will take many more decades before this happens.
This principle was accepted by the climate convention, which agreed that the rich world had to reduce its emissions to make space for the poor to grow. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol set the first, hesitant and weak, target for reduction by the rich countries. But this agreement has been more of less reneged on. The per capita emission of CO2 from fuel combustion in the US is still roughly 20 tonnes per year; between 6 tonnes and 12 tonnes for most European countries. This is not comparable to the per capita emissions of China, roughly 4 tonnes and 1.1 tonnes in India.
— What equals effective, Down To Earth Magazine, CSE, December 15, 2007
(The above article also notes the disparities within nations, including countries such as India, where the wealthy do consume far more than the rich, and that needs addressing too.)
CSE also points out that India and China are not that energy inefficient as often believed:
Myth 1: China and India are energy-inefficient and therefore grossly polluting. However, recent reports show this “belief” is founded on myths. The World Bank, in its October 2007 report on growth and CO2 emissions, finds that India is 1.5 times more efficient than the US in terms of emissions calculated in purchasing power parity terms. Highly-abused China is slightly more inefficient than the us— despite being the world’s largest manufacturing hub (see table: Comparative emissions efficiency).
— Efficiency / sufficiency, Down To Earth Magazine, CSE, December 15, 2007
(The second myth they felt was “Efficiency, not sufficiency, will cut emissions.” They argue that while efficiency is of course important, there are examples where say car emissions have become better but people have been driving more, thus overall driving up emissions.)
In addition to the various links above, also see the following:
Climate Change Special from Down To Earth Magazine, by the Centre for Science and Environment, December 15, 2007 issue. This 17-part article looks at various issues on the politics of climate change, leading up to Bali.
Business in Bali: The science is clear, it's high time to sort out the politics, from the same Down To Earth, December 15, 2007 issue, is a shorter version.
Climate Justice and Equity from this site goes into this developing country perspective in a bit more detail.
Bali Updates from the Third World Network provides more detailed look at the negotiating politics from the developing country perspective.
More from GlobalIssues.org on Climate Change - Conferences of Parties (COP):
- COP 13—Bali
- COP 11—Montreal
- COP 10—Buenos Aires
- COP 8—Delhi
- COP 7—Marrakesh
- COP 6—The Hague
- COP 4—Buenos Aires
- COP 3—Kyoto
- Vienna Climate Change Talks 27 - 31 August 2007: The fourth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG 4) and the fourth workshop under the dialogue on long-term cooperative action to address climate change by enhancing implementation of the Convention took place at the Austrian Center Vienna (ACV), Vienna, Austria on 27-31 August 2007
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) = Zwischenstaatlicher Ausschuss für Klimaänderungen( IPCC) + Was ist das IPCC? Der Zwischenstaatliche Ausschuss für Klimaänderungen (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC) wurde 1988 gemeinsam von der Welt-Meteorologieorganisation (WMO) und dem Umweltprogramm der Vereinten Nationen (UNEP) gegründet. Seine Aufgabengebiete beinhalten:
Die Bewertung der verfügbaren wissenschaftlichen und sozioökonomischen Informationen zur Klimaänderung sowie der Möglichkeiten zur Vermeidung der Klimaänderung und zur Anpassung daran;
Auf Anfrage die Erteilung von wissenschaftlichen/technischen/sozioökonomischen Ratschlägen an die Konferenz der Vertragsparteien (COP) zur Klimarahmenkonvention (UNFCCC).
Seit 1990 hat der IPCC eine Reihe von Wissensstandsberichten, Sonderberichten, Technischen Papieren, methodischen Anleitungen und andere Produkte erarbeitet, die zu Referenzwerken geworden sind und von den politischen Entscheidungsträgern, Forschenden und anderen Experten häufig gebraucht werden.
Der dritte Sachstandsbericht (TAR) von 2001 besteht aus den Berichten der Arbeitsgruppen I, II und III des IPCC und dem Synthesebericht.
- IPCC AR3 Klimaänderung 2001
- IPCC AR4 - AGII: Kenntnisstand über künftige geografische Auswirkungen des Klimawandels
- IPCC AR4 - AGII: Kenntnisstand über künftige systemische Auswirkungen des Klimawandels
- IPCC AR4 - Arbeitsgruppe I: „Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen“
- IPCC AR4 - Arbeitsgruppe II: „Auswirkungen, Anpassung, Verwundbarkeiten“
- IPCC AR4: Klimaänderungen 2007
- IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4): Climate Change 2007 The AR4 Synthesis Report has been released on 17 November 2007, Valencia, Spain Summary for Policymakers of the AR4 Synthesis Report Watch the webcast of the press conference Mr Pachauri's presentation at the IPCC Press Conference United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon speech to IPCC Plenary
- Three full reports are available online (see below). Hardcopies of the Summaries for Policymakers + Technical Summaries are available for free in the 6 UN official languages upon request to the IPCC Secretariat. Hardcopies of the full reports can be purchased from Cambridge University Press. A limited number of free copies are available for academic institutions from developing countries and countries with economies in transition upon request to the Secretariat.
- Working Group III Report "Mitigation of Climate Change" (4 May 07 - Bangkok)
- Working Group II Report "Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability" (6 April 07 - Brussels)
- Kernaussagen IPCC-Bericht - Auswirkungen, Anpassungsstrategien, Verwundbarkeiten ist der 2. Bericht des Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Er wurde am 06.04.2007 in Brüssel veröffentlicht und liefert eine umfangreiche Analyse, wie sich der Klimawandel auf Ökosysteme und Gesellschaft auswirkt, welche Auswirkungen zukünftig zu erwarten sind und welche Effekte mit Anpassung und Emissionsminderungen erreicht werden können. Eine Zusammenfassung dieses Berichts mit einem Schwerpunkt für Europa ist hier abrufbar: Working Group I Report "The Physical Science Basis" (2 Febr 07 -Paris) - Full report online + Powerpoint files containing the figures from the Summary for Policymakers (SPM), Technical Summary (TS), and individual Chapters are now available.
- Dokumente des G8-Gipfels Heiligendamm (7.-8.Juni 2007) + Faltblatt über die G8-Staaten (275,1 KB)
- Dokumente zum EU-USA-Gipfel (30.04.2007)
- Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Deutschen Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen.
- Der Österreichische Klimaschutzgipfel 2007- fand am 16. April 2007 in Wien statt. Verfolgen Sie den Klimaschutz-gipfel live! Die gesamte Veranstaltung wird im Internet live übertragen.
- Die österreichische Klimastrategie (21. März 2007)
- Anpassung der Klimastrategie Österreichs zur Erreichung des Kyoto-Ziels 2008-2012 (PDF, 681 kB) + Die österreichische Klimastrategie (2002)
- WMO - World Meteorological Organization - is the UN system's voice on the state and behaviour of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.
- Informationen zur Klimarahmenkonvention + Kyoto Protokoll
- WegenerCenter - Wegener Zentrum für Klima und Globalen Wandel an der Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
- Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK) - Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) - was founded in 1992 and now has a staff of about 150 people. At PIK researchers in the natural and social sciences work together to study global change and its impacts on ecological, economic and social systems. They examine the Earth system's capacity for withstanding human interventions and devise strategies for a sustainable development of humankind and nature. PIK research projects are interdisciplinary and undertaken by scientists from the following five departments: Integrated Systems Analysis, Climate System, Natural Systems, Social Systems and Data & Computation.
- Protecting our Environment - Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's Homepage + Gov. Schwarzenegger Applauds U.S. Mayors for Fight against Climate Change
- Seattle Climate Action Plan homepage - Action Plan - Acrobat PDF 850 kb
- US Mayors Climate Protection Agreement - On February 16, 2005 the Kyoto Protocol, the international agreement to address climate disruption, became law for the 141 countries that have ratified it to date. On that day, Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels launched an initiative to advance the goals of the Kyoto Protocol through leadership and action by at least 141 American cities. Mayor Nickels, along with a growing number of other US mayors, is leading the development of a US Mayors Climate Protection Agreement
- United States Climate Action Partnership (USCAP) is a group of businesses and leading environmental organizations that have come together to call on the federal government to quickly enact strong national legislation to require significant reductions of greenhouse gas emissions. USCAP has issued a landmark set of principles and recommendations to underscore the urgent need for a policy framework on climate change. More >
- ICLEI - Cities for Climate Protection
- Climate Solutions
- Sierra Club
- US Climate Action Network
- Center for New American Dream
- Union of Concerned Scientists
- Northwest Energy Coalition
- WWF - World Wildlife Fund
- National Environmental Trust
- West Coast Environmental Law is BC's legal champion for the environment
- Rettet den Regenwald e.V.
- Fliegen und Klima
UN Headquarters, New York, 24 September 2007 - United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon will seek to advance the global agenda on climate change when he meets with heads of state and other top officials from more than 150 countries at United Nations Headquarters on 24 September. More than 70 heads of state or government will attend the one-day event, making it the largest meeting ever of world leaders on climate change. The high-level event — which takes place one day before the opening of the UN General Assembly’s annual General Debate — is aimed at securing political commitment and building momentum for the UN Climate Change Conference in Bali where negotiations about a new international climate agreement should start. The Bali meeting, from 3 to 14 December, will convene the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. "Bali must advance a negotiating agenda to combat climate change on all fronts, including adaptation, mitigation, clean technologies, deforestation and resource mobilization," said Mr. Ban, who has made the issue one of his top priorities. "Bali must be the political response to the recent scientific reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. All countries must do what they can to reach agreement by 2009, and to have it in force by the expiry of the current Kyoto Protocol commitment period in 2012." READ MORE>>
- The 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Internetseite in englischer Sprache)
- The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer - (Internetseite in englischer Sprache)
- UNEP - Ozone Secretariat + 2007: International Year of the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol)
- UNEP - OzonAction Branch
- Europäische Union: Schutz der Ozonschicht
- Links zum Thema "Ozonschicht" - Deutsches Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU)
- Informationen zum Ozonloch - Universität Bielefeld
- Europäisches Zentrum für Erneuerbare Energie (EEE) in Güssing ( www.eee-info.net ) - 1990 gelang es im Gemeinderat von Güssing einen Grundsatzbeschluss zu erreichen: 100-‑prozentiger Ausstieg aus der fossilen Energieversorgung. 14 Jahre später spricht man bereits vom wichtigsten Beschluss des Gemeinderates aller Zeiten. In der Verantwortung der Stadt lag auch der Beginn der ersten Umsetzungsmaßnahmen des Energiekonzeptes nämlich Energieeinsparung. Alle im Gemeindezentrum befindlichen Objekte und Anlagen wurden energetisch optimiert mit dem Ergebnis, dass die Ausgaben für Energie im Gemeindebudget beinahe halbiert werden konnten. Die ersten „Umwelterfolge“ waren ein Grund und Ansporn am Konzept „Energieautarke Stadt“ konsequent weiter zu arbeiten und weitere Projekte umzusetzen.
- Energiewende.com - Erneuerbare Energie - news über erneuerbare energie (klimawandel)
- Elektromobil- und Elektrofahrzeug-Portal (Elektroautos - autofahren mit solarkraft)
- EnergyBulletin - publishes news and research concerning: The current situation and trajectory, such as oil & gas
- production data, economic or societal clues to decline profiles, and relevant institutional pronouncements; Innovations or partial solutions to this crisis, such as renewable energy generation capacity and research (including EROEI assessments), alternative financial systems, or post-carbon urban agriculture; Any other issues which assist our understanding of the broader implications of the peak.
- Informationskreis KernEnergie (IK) in Deutschland hat es sich zur Aufgabe gemacht, die Diskussion über die friedliche Nutzung der Kernenergie durch die Vermittlung von Fakten zu objektivieren und darüber hinaus Perspektiven einer zuverlässigen Energieversorgung aufzuzeigen
- The Oil Drum: A community discussion about peak oil
- Oil Depletion Protocol: A Plan for a Sensible Energy Future...As we move into an era of oil depletion and energy constraint, everything from transportation to medicine to food to climate change response strategies will be affected. Almost everything we do is dependent on oil. The transition to a future of reduced oil supply will require the development of clean, reliable, and renewable energy sources and reduced oil production and consumption. The Oil Depletion Protocol will allow us to accomplish both - simply, conservatively, and cooperatively. It is a plan for a sensible energy future.
- Oil Depletion Analysis Centre (ODAC) is an independent, UK-registered educational charity working to raise international public awareness and promote better understanding of the world's oil-depletion problem.
- Association for the Study of Peak Oil & Gas(ASPO)
- Peak Oil - Exploring the Issue of Hydrocarbon Depletion
- Post Carbon Institute - Learning to Live in a Low Energy World
- Global Oil Watch is a web portal providing news and resources for energy industry professionals and analysts.
- The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants(POPs) (2001) - POPs-Sekretariat
- Stockholm Konvention POPs-Konvention
- The 12 POPs under the Stockholm Convention + Case Studies
- "Das dreckige Dutzend" - klassische Dauergifte
- Die als dirty dozen (Dreckiges Dutzend) bekannten zwölf organischen Giftstoffe (u.a. Pflanzenschutzmittel, Industriechemikalien und Nebenprodukte von Verbrennungsprozessen (Dioxine, Furane)) wurden durch die POP- oder Stockholmer Konvention weltweit verboten.
- The Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (1998)
- PIC-Konvention (Rotterdamer Übereinkommen): Hintergrundinformationen zum Rotterdamer Übereinkommen (PIC-Verfahren)
- Wiener Übereinkommenzum Schutz der Ozonschicht von 1985 (englisch)
- Montrealer Protokoll zu Ozon schädigenden Stoffen von 1987 (englisch)
- Baseler Übereinkommen von 1989 über die Kontrolle der grenzüberschreitenden Verbringung von gefährlichen Abfällen und deren Entsorgung (englisch)
- Chemie-Waffen Übereinkommen von 1993(englisch)
- UNEP Chemicals' Programme
- EnvironmentalChemistry.com - This site provides chemistry, environmental and hazardous materials news, information & resources including: in depth articles; a detailed periodic table of elements; chemical database; hazmat emergency response guides; hazmat placarding information; and much more.
- UNU-EHS explores threats to human security arising from natural and human-induced hazards. The Institute spearheads research, capacity building and policy-relevant advisory activities relating to the broad interdisciplinary field of 'risk and vulnerability'.
- Informationen zur Artenvielfaltkonvention - Internationale Konventionen/Abkommen mit Bezug zur Biodiversität (CBD)
- Biodiversity Hot Spots - "The most remarkable places on Earth are also the most threatened." Thus begins Conservation International’s introduction to the world’s biodiversity hotspots, so-named for the wealth of unique species they house.
- NOAA Ocean Explorer - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is determined to penetrate every minnow hideout and barnacle cluster of your realm, and with technology this advanced, there’s no stopping this league of swashbuckling scientists.
- MANGREEN - Mangrove Ecological Restoration in India - Dieses Projekt wurde in enger Abstimmung mit der lokalen Naturschutzorganisation OMCAR (Ocean Marine Conservation, Awarness and Research) entwickelt. Die indische Organisation für marinen Naturschutz ist seit Jahren im Schutz der Meeresschildkröten und der Küstenökosysteme in Tamil Nadu aktiv mit dem Ziel zerstörte und stark bedrohte Mangrovenwälder wieder aufzuforsten.
- Global Volcanism Program - The Program seeks to document the eruptions of all volcanoes, great and small, over the past 10,000 years.
- UNDP - United Nations Development Programme
- UNEP - United Nations Environmental Programme World Environment Day 5 June 2007
- UNEP - Division of Environmental Policy Implementation
- Rio + 5 - Folgeprozeß der Weltkonferenz zu Umwelt und Entwicklung in Rio 1992
- Rio + 10 - Förderung nationaler Strategien nachhaltiger Entwicklung
- Österreichisches Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft
- Österreichisches Umweltbundesamt/Federal Environment Agency
- Deutsches Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU)
- Europäische Kommission GD XI Umwelt
- Europäische Umweltagentur - Die Europäische Umweltagentur ist die führende Umweltbehörde Europas, deren Aufgabe es ist, Entscheidungsträgern und der Öffentlichkeit rechtzeitig sachdienliche, themenspezifische und zuverlässige Informationen bereitzustellen, um so eine nachhaltige Entwicklung zu fördern und zu einer deutlichen, messbaren Verbesserung der Umwelt Europas beizutragen.
- Institute of Ecology and Conservation Biology (IECB), Universität Wien
- Umweltinstitut München- eine der größten überparteilichen Umweltschutzvereine in Dtld. - Forschung/Analyse/Info
- Worldwatch Institute - offers a unique blend of interdisciplinary research, global focus, and accessible writing that has made it a leading source of information on the interactions among key environmental, social, economic trends.
- Heinrich Böll Foundation - Weltgipfel Johannesburg 2002
- Harvard University Center for the Environment
- Harvard Law School Library: ILS Web Sites: International Environmental Law
- Max Planck Institut für ausländisches Recht und Völkerrecht, Heidelberg - Dokumente + Links zum Thema "Environmental Protection / Umweltschutz"
- ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources:"International Environmental Law"
- Verzeichnisse zum Thema Umwelt - Die Seite der Université Libre de Bruxelles - Université d'Europe ist in Englisch, Französisch http://www.ulb.ac.be/ceese/meta/cdsfr.htmlund Niederländisch verfügbar.
- The Ecologist: The world’s most respected environmental affairs magazine.
- Ökonews - Die erste Tageszeitung für Erneuerbare Energie und Nachhaltigkeit